AU-C Section 200.02-03: What are GAAS?

".02 GAAS are developed and issued in the form of Statements on Auditing Standards (SASs) and are codified into AU-C sections. GAAS are written in the context of an audit of financial statements by an auditor. They are to be adapted as necessary in the circumstances when applied to other engagements conducted in accordance with GAAS, such as audits of other historical financial information, compliance audits, and audits of internal control over financial reporting that are integrated with audits of financial statements.GAAS do not address the responsibilities of the auditor that may exist in legislation, regulation, or otherwise, in connection with, for example, the offering of securities to the public. Such responsibilities may differ from those established in GAAS. Accordingly, although the auditor may find aspects of GAAS helpful in such circumstances, it is the responsibility of the auditor to ensure compliance with all relevant legal, regulatory, or professional obligations.

.03 An auditor is associated with financial information when the auditor has applied procedures sufficient to permit the auditor to report in accordance with GAAS. Statements on Standards for Accounting and Review Services address the accountant's considerations when the accountant prepares and presents financial statements to the entity or to third parties."

AU-C Section 200.04: The Purpose of an Audit

".04 The purpose of an audit is to provide financial statement users with an opinion by the auditor on whether the financial statements are presented fairly, in all material respects, in accordance with an applicable financial reporting framework, which enhances the degree of confidence that intended users can place in the financial statements. An audit conducted in accordance with GAAS and relevant ethical requirements enables the auditor to form that opinion."

AU-C Section 200.05: Management's Responsibilities

".05 The financial statements subject to audit are those of the entity, prepared and presented by management of the entity with oversight from those charged with governance. GAAS do not impose responsibilities on management or those charged with governance and do not override laws and regulations that govern their responsibilities. However, an audit in accordance with GAAS is conducted on the premise that management and, when appropriate, those charged with governance have acknowledged certain responsibilities that are fundamental to the conduct of the audit. The audit of the financial statements does not relieve management or those charged with governance of their responsibilities."

AU-C Section 200.06: The Auditor's Responsibilities

".06 As the basis for the auditor's opinion, GAAS require the auditor to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements as a whole are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error. Reasonable assurance is a high, but not absolute, level of assurance. It is obtained when the auditor has obtained sufficient appropriate audit evidence to reduce audit risk (that is, the risk that the auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion when the financial statements are materially misstated) to an acceptably low level. Reasonable assurance is not an absolute level of assurance because there are inherent limitations of an audit that result in most of the audit evidence, on which the auditor draws conclusions and bases the auditor's opinion, being persuasive rather than conclusive."

AU-C Section 200.07: The Concept of Materiality

".07 The concept of materiality is applied by the auditor when both planning and performing the audit, and in evaluating the effect of identified misstatements on the audit and uncorrected misstatements, if any, on the financial statements. In general, misstatements, including omissions, are considered to be material if, individually or in the aggregate, they could reasonably be expected to influence the economic decisions of users that are taken based on the financial statements. Judgments about materiality are made in light of surrounding circumstances, and involve both qualitative and quantitative considerations. These judgments are affected by the auditor's perception of the financial information needs of users of the financial statements, and by the size or nature of a misstatement, or both. The auditor's opinion addresses the financial statements as a whole. Therefore, the auditor has no responsibility to plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance that misstatements, whether caused by fraud or error, that are not material to the financial statements as a whole, are detected."

AU-C Section 200.08-10. The Audit Process

"08. GAAS contain objectives, requirements, and application and other explanatory material that are designed to support the auditor in obtaining reasonable assurance. GAAS require that the auditor exercise professional judgment and maintain professional skepticism throughout the planning and performance of the audit and, among other things,

  • identify and assess risks of material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error, based on an understanding of the entity and its environment, including the entity's internal control.

  • obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence about whether material misstatements exist, through designing and implementing appropriate responses to the assessed risks.

  • form an opinion on the financial statements, or determine that an opinion cannot be formed, based on an evaluation of the audit evidence obtained.

.09 The form of opinion expressed by the auditor will depend upon the applicable financial reporting framework and any applicable law or regulation.

.10 The auditor also may have certain other communication and reporting responsibilities to users, management, those charged with governance, or parties outside the entity, regarding matters arising from the audit. These responsibilities may be established by GAAS or by applicable law or regulation."

AU-C Section 200.12-13: The Overall Objectives of the Auditor

".12 The overall objectives of the auditor, in conducting an audit of financial statements, are to

  1. obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements as a whole are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error, thereby enabling the auditor to express an opinion on whether the financial statements are presented fairly, in all material respects, in accordance with an applicable financial reporting framework; and

  2. report on the financial statements, and communicate as required by GAAS, in accordance with the auditor's findings.

.13 In all cases when reasonable assurance cannot be obtained and a qualified opinion in the auditor's report is insufficient in the circumstances for purposes of reporting to the intended users of the financial statements, GAAS require that the auditor disclaim an opinion or withdraw from the engagement, when withdrawal is possible under applicable law or regulation."

AU-C Section 200.15: Auditor Independence

".15 The auditor must be independent of the entity when performing an engagement in accordance with GAAS unless (a) GAAS provides otherwise or (b) the auditor is required by law or regulation to accept the engagement and report on the financial statements. When the auditor is not independent and neither (a) nor (b) are applicable, the auditor is precluded from issuing a report under GAAS."

AU-C Section 200.16: Ethical Requirements

".16 The auditor should comply with relevant ethical requirements relating to financial statement audit engagements."

AU-C Section 200.17: Professional Skepticism

".17 The auditor should plan and perform an audit with professional skepticism, recognizing that circumstances may exist that cause the financial statements to be materially misstated."

AU-C Section 200.18: Professional Judgment

".18 The auditor should exercise professional judgment in planning and performing an audit of financial statements."

AU-C Section 200.19: What is Reasonable Assurance?

".19 To obtain reasonable assurance, the auditor should obtain sufficient appropriate audit evidence to reduce audit risk to an acceptably low level and thereby enable the auditor to draw reasonable conclusions on which to base the auditor's opinion."

AU-C Section 200.20-22: Complying with AU-C Sections Relevant to the Audit

".20 The auditor should comply with all AU-C sections relevant to the audit. An AU-C section is relevant to the audit when the AU-C section is in effect and the circumstances addressed by the AU-C section exist. (Ref: par. .A57–.A62)

.21 The auditor should have an understanding of the entire text of an AU-C section, including its application and other explanatory material, to understand its objectives and to apply its requirements properly. (Ref: par. .A63–.A71)

.22 The auditor should not represent compliance with GAAS in the auditor's report unless the auditor has complied with the requirements of this section and all other AU-C sections relevant to the audit."

AU-C Section 200.23: Objectives Stated in Individual AU-C Sections

".23 To achieve the overall objectives of the auditor, the auditor should use the objectives stated in individual AU-C sections in planning and performing the audit considering the interrelationships within GAAS to

  1. determine whether any audit procedures in addition to those required by individual AU-C sections are necessary in pursuance of the objectives stated in each AU-C section; and

  2. evaluate whether sufficient appropriate audit evidence has been obtained."

AU-C Section 200.24-26: Complying with Relevant Requirements

".24 Subject to paragraph .26, the auditor should comply with each requirement of an AU-C section unless, in the circumstances of the audit,

  1. the entire AU-C section is not relevant; or

  2. the requirement is not relevant because it is conditional and the condition does not exist.

.25 GAAS use the following two categories of professional requirements,identified by specific terms, to describe the degree of responsibility it imposes on auditors:

  • Unconditional requirements.The auditor must comply with an unconditional requirement in all cases in which such requirement is relevant. GAAS use the word "must" to indicate an unconditional requirement.

  • Presumptively mandatory requirements. The auditor must comply with a presumptively mandatory requirement in all cases in which such a requirement is relevant except in rare circumstances discussed in paragraph .26. GAAS use the word "should" to indicate a presumptively mandatory requirement.

.26 In rare circumstances, the auditor may judge it necessary to depart from a relevant presumptively mandatory requirement. In such circumstances,the auditor should perform alternative audit procedures to achieve the intent of that requirement. The need for the auditor to depart from a relevant presumptively mandatory requirement is expected to arise only when the requirement is for a specific procedure to be performed and, in the specific circumstances of the audit, that procedure would be ineffective in achieving the intent of the requirement."

AU-C Section 200.27-28: Interpretive Publications and Other Auditing Publications

".27 The auditor should consider applicable interpretive publications in planning and performing the audit.

.28 In applying the auditing guidance included in an other auditing publication, the auditor should, exercising professional judgment, assess the relevance and appropriateness of such guidance to the circumstances of the audit."

AU-C Section 200.29: Failure to Achieve an Objective

".29 If an objective in a relevant AU-C section cannot be achieved, the auditor should evaluate whether this prevents the auditor from achieving the over-all objectives of the auditor and thereby requires the auditor, in accordance with GAAS, to modify the auditor's opinion or withdraw from the engagement (when withdrawal is possible under applicable law or regulation). Failure to achieve an objective represents a significant finding or issue requiring documentation in accordance with section 230, Audit Documentation."